Stuart Hall 1980

Hall (1980)

About Hall:


  • Stuart Hall is a cultural theorist and he developed a theoretical model to explain the influence of television broadcasts such as advertisements and sitcoms.
  • He called this theory the encoding/decoding model.

Encoding/Decoding model:


  • Focuses on the ideological dimensions of the message production in a capitalist world.

Ideological dimensions: The ideas of an aspect of a situation.
Capitalist: When a person is taking advantage of something.


Audience code theory:


Hall looked at the role of audience positioning in the interpretation of mass media texts by difference social groups. He came up with three ways an audience may read a media text:


  1. A Dominant code – Reader fully accepts the preferred reading, the code seems natural and transparent.
  2. A Negotiated code – Reader partly believes the code ad broadly accepts the preferred reading, but sometimes modifies it in a way which reflects their own interests.
  3. An Oppositional code – Readers social position places them in an oppositional relation to the dominant code. They reject the reading.


Preferred reading: what the audiences’ are reading and what they prefer as an audience.

Example: (Glamour magazine)


Person 1 (Dominant code): Agrees with this magazine 100% and enjoys reading it.


Person 2 (Negotiated code): Enjoys reading the magazine, however she disagrees with some things within the magazine.


Person 3 (Oppositional code): Dislikes the magazine because she’s interested in different things.

Outline Brief

Outline brief

For my coursework, the brief I have chosen is brief one, to work for the Silver Lining Productions. The two tasks I have chosen from this brief are broadcasting, to produce a few scenes of my own TV programme and also print, to create a front cover and two further pages for a magazine.

For the broadcasting section I have decided to create a short (two minutes) collection of videos put together about my TV programme, which is going to be about magic and unrevealing secrets of magic. The people featured in the magic show are going to be a few of the students studying drama at the academy and also volunteers that would like to be a part of the production. When I produce the opening scene for my TV programme I will be giving out questionnaires to a selection of people that take part in it. For this task I will be using a video camera to record the opening and also a piece of editing software to join all the videos together and maybe cut out a few parts too.

For the print section I’ll be producing three posters to advertise my TV programme. The three different posters will be completely different, advertising the TV programme in several ways to attract the targeted audience (ages 15-35). To produce these three posters I’ll be using Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, and also taking pictures from the TV programme that I have created to attract people to the poster. At the end of the process of producing the posters I’ll mainly focus on the codes and conventions as well as completing the task at a high standard.