Textual Analysis Toolkit

Each type of text you will analyse is below, together with a list of things that could be analysed for it. Let me know in the comments in you think of any potential additions!

Advertising

Print

  • Codes and conventions
  • Layout and design
  • Composition
  • Images/photographs – camera shot type, angle, focus
  • Font size, type of font (e.g. serif/sans serif), colour
  • Mise-en-scène – colour, lighting, location, costume/dress, hair/make-up
  • Graphics, logos etc.
  • Language – slogan/tagline and copy
  • Anchorage of images and text
  • Elements of narrative

Moving image

  • Codes and conventions
  • Camera work – framing, shot types, angle, position, movement
  • Editing – pace, type of edits, continuity/montage Structure/narrative
  • Sound – music/dialogue/voiceover
  • Mise-en-scene – colour, lighting, location, costume/dress, hair/make-up

Music video

  • Codes and conventions – performance/narrative/experimental features
  • Camera work (framing – shot types, angle, position, movement)
  • Editing – beat-matched?
  • Elements of continuity/montage
  • How does the video interpret the music and/or lyrics?
  • Structure/narrative
  • Intertextuality
  • Sound
  • Mise-en-scene – colour, lighting, location, costume/dress, hair/make-up

Newspapers

  • Point of view and ideology
  • Codes and conventions of news products/newspapers/type of newspaper
  • Layout and design
  • Composition – positioning of headlines, images, columns, combination of stories
  • Images/photographs – camera shot type, angle, focus
  • Font size, type of font (e.g. serif/sans serif)
  • Mise-en-scène – colour, lighting, location, costume/dress, hair/make-up
  • Graphics, logos
  • Language – headline, sub-headings, captions
  • Copy
  • Anchorage of images and text
  • Elements of narrative

Television

  • Genre codes and conventions
  • Genre theory
  • Genre fluidity
  • Camera work – framing and composition shot types, angle, position, movement
  • Lighting and colour
  • Editing – pace, type of edits, continuity
  • Narrative construction, related to narrative theory
  • Sound – dialogue, music
  • Mise-en-scene – setting and location, props, costume/dress, hair/make-up

Magazines

  • Codes and conventions – changes over time?
  • Layout and design
  • Composition – positioning of masthead/headlines, cover lines, images, columns
  • Font size, type, colour
  • Images/photographs – shot type, angle, focus
  • Mise-en-scene – colour, lighting, location, costume/dress, hair/make-up
  • Graphics, logos
  • Language – headline, sub-headings, captions – mode of address
  • Copy
  • Anchorage of images and text
  • Elements of narrative

Online media

  • Homepage and other pages
  • Codes and conventions
  • Layout and design
  • Composition
  • Font size, type of font (e.g. serif/sans serif), colour
  • Images/photographs – camera shot type, angle, focus
  • Mise-en-scene – colour, lighting, location, costume/dress, hair/make-up
  • Graphics, logos
  • Language – formal/informal mode of address?
  • Anchorage of images and text
  • Elements of narrative/structure around the site
  • Interactive features
  • Menu bar and navigation – structure and design of the site

NRS Social Grades

The National Readership Survey Social Status Classification:

The social status of an audience group has an impact of the motives you will want to offer. Most of society falls into the (C) D and E categories.
A – Upper middle-class (higher managerial and professional)
B – Middle class (middle managerial and professional)
C1 – Lower middle class (supervisory, junior management and professional)
C2 – Skilled working class (skiller manual worker)
D – Unskilled working class (semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers)
E – Those that depend on the state (pensioners, lower grade workers and the unemployed) Continue reading “NRS Social Grades”

Audiences – Fiske

Fiske states that there are 5 factors to be considered when identifying audience:

  1. education: the level of education received by the audience can offer different ways of targeting them. E.g. Uni students aged 24 will need a different reason to follow your message than 24-year-olds who left school at 18.
  2. religion: are you targeting a particular religious group, or will your work present values common to all religions?
  3. political allegiance: different political groups present different priorities in life. Labour, for example, apparently focuses on equality and the ‘common man’, whereas the Conservatives focus on the ability for individuals to succeed if they work hard. The ‘popular’ party at the time can influence decisions.
  4. region: there is a big difference between London and Leicester when looking at values, fashions, etc. London is the more powerful, so following values promoted by the capital may be a good idea.
  5. urban vs rural: this is town vs country. There are different motives for each section. Most people live in towns, therefore a focus on something like image is valid.

Audiences – Hartley

This expands upon Burton’s classification of socially grouped audiences. He identifies 7 subjectives. If any of them apply to your audience, you have identified a more more specific audience and should offer motives appropriate to that audience. The more specific your audience, the more you can target them exactly. Continue reading “Audiences – Hartley”