NRS Social Grades

The National Readership Survey Social Status Classification:

The social status of an audience group has an impact of the motives you will want to offer. Most of society falls into the (C) D and E categories.
A – Upper middle-class (higher managerial and professional)
B – Middle class (middle managerial and professional)
C1 – Lower middle class (supervisory, junior management and professional)
C2 – Skilled working class (skiller manual worker)
D – Unskilled working class (semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers)
E – Those that depend on the state (pensioners, lower grade workers and the unemployed) Continue reading “NRS Social Grades”

Audiences – Fiske

Fiske states that there are 5 factors to be considered when identifying audience:

  1. education: the level of education received by the audience can offer different ways of targeting them. E.g. Uni students aged 24 will need a different reason to follow your message than 24-year-olds who left school at 18.
  2. religion: are you targeting a particular religious group, or will your work present values common to all religions?
  3. political allegiance: different political groups present different priorities in life. Labour, for example, apparently focuses on equality and the ‘common man’, whereas the Conservatives focus on the ability for individuals to succeed if they work hard. The ‘popular’ party at the time can influence decisions.
  4. region: there is a big difference between London and Leicester when looking at values, fashions, etc. London is the more powerful, so following values promoted by the capital may be a good idea.
  5. urban vs rural: this is town vs country. There are different motives for each section. Most people live in towns, therefore a focus on something like image is valid.

Audiences – Hartley

This expands upon Burton’s classification of socially grouped audiences. He identifies 7 subjectives. If any of them apply to your audience, you have identified a more more specific audience and should offer motives appropriate to that audience. The more specific your audience, the more you can target them exactly. Continue reading “Audiences – Hartley”

Audiences – Burton

Grame Burton identifies the difference between socially grouped audiences (e.g. grouped by age, gender, place in society, etc) and media grouped audiences (e.g. grouped by their relationship with the media, such as computer users, film goers and so on). Socially grouped audiences are explored in a minute, but consider your audience, is there a way of reaching them – do their interests relate to a particular media product? If you are selling a CD for example, you are targeting a media grouped audience.

Time for a new audience model?

Year 13 this week applied Marxist theory and Hegemony to audiences, allowing us to revisit some audience theories (Both credited to Katz & Lazarsfeld, 1955); namely…

The Hypodermic Syringe model:

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Here audiences are ‘injected’ with representations, values & ideologies directly from institutions – such methods are used in propaganda materials, for example. Continue reading “Time for a new audience model?”

AS & A2 Recommended Media Studies Theorists

Every theorist & theory you will ever need!!

Genre

  • John Fiske – genre as ‘convenience’ for producers and audiences – this means commercial success is underpinned by the conventions of genre in terms of what audiences expect.
  • Robert Stam – there are infinite genres. Basically here, Stam is advancing an A2 concept that there is an argument that genre no longer exists and we do not have to analyse text in terms of genre.
  • Jane Feuer – genre is abstract and becoming harder to identify.
  • Henry Jenkins – genre break rules and commonly hybridizes.
  • John Hartley – genre is interpreted culturally e.g. Coronation Street or Eastenders could only be understood in terms of the conventions of UK soap operas, American television dramas tend to have a slightly different set of conventions to British television dramas.
  • Daniel Chandler – genre is too restricting and presents audiences and producers with a creative ‘straightjacket’.
  • Steve Neale – genre as repetition and difference
  • David Buckingham – genre in constant process of negotiation and change
  • Rick Altman – genre offers audiences a ‘set of pleasures’

Continue reading “AS & A2 Recommended Media Studies Theorists”