Harvard Referencing – A guide

As you may know, there are a range of different ways of writing references. Some of them involve using footnotes, or having separate lists called ‘References’ and ‘Bibliography’, and generally give you a headache. `Most recommend the ‘Harvard’ system of referencing, which is straightforward, and widely-used by publishers and academics.


It’s quite simple. When you quote or paraphrase something, you cite the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page reference, in brackets. For example:

The popularity of baked beans soared when Elvis Presley was seen to eat six whole tins on Entertainment Tonight in 1959 (Heinz, 2000: 34). Continue reading “Harvard Referencing – A guide”

Media Theory in essays & exams – how & why?

Time and time again I tell my classes “Use theories, examiners love that!”, and whilst this may be true (and probably quite obvious), it is no use just showing that you know media theories for the sake of it.

The whole point of inserting theories into essays & exams is to demonstrate understanding, but the common misconception here is that just by dropping in names of theories such as The Hypodermic Syringe, Hyperreality or Uses & Gratifications, you may think you are demonstrating understanding, but what you really are doing is demonstrating knowledge, which is something else entirely.

So, what’s the difference?  Continue reading “Media Theory in essays & exams – how & why?”